What Is Sweden In Swedish – Was a period in Swedish history spanning most of the 17th and early 18th centuries when Sweden became a major European power that controlled much of the Baltic region. The beginning of the period is generally considered to be the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, and the loss of territories in 1721 after the Great Northern War.
After the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, the kingdom was controlled for a long time by a group of high officials, such as the Oxstierna family, who acted as officials of the petty kings. The interests of the aristocracy are counterbalanced by a policy of equality (ie, to promote cultural equality in the case of a Swedish estate favored by the rich and the peasantry). In the territories acquired during good governance, serfdom was not abolished, and there was a trd to establish proper domains in Swedish proper. The Great Depression of 1680 ended these efforts by the nobles and required them to return lands acquired by the crown to the king. The service, however, remained active in the territories acquired by the Holy Roman Empire and Estonian Sweden, where the application of the policy of equality was avoided by the treaties by which they were acquired.
What Is Sweden In Swedish
After its victory in the Thirty Years’ War, Sweden reached the height of its power during the Second Northern War, when its main enemy, Denmark-Norway, was annihilated by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. However, the continuation of this. war, and in the Scanian War that followed, Sweden could only maintain its empire with the support of its close ally, France.
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Although the reign of Charles XII would see Sweden’s first victories in the Peace of Travdal (1700) and the Treaty of Altranstädt (1706), he would continue to lead a campaign in Russia that would be defeated by ‘strong way to the Swedes. Russia’s victory at the Battle of Poltava ended Sweden’s expansion in the East, and by the time of Charles XII’s death in 1718 the Empire had declined greatly both geographically and militarily. The last traces of occupied continental territory disappeared during the Napoleonic Wars, and Finland went to Russia in 1809, marking the end of the Swedish era as a great power.
Sweden emerged as a major European power under Axel Oxstierna and King Gustavus Adolphus. Due to the acquisition of territories taken from Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as his involvement in the Thirty Years’ War, Swede found himself transformed into a Protestant leader.
During the Thirty Years’ War, Sweden was able to conquer almost half of the member states of the Holy Roman Empire. The fortunes of war swung back and forth several times. After its defeat at the Battle of Nördling (1634), Sweden’s trust among the Swedish-controlled German states was damaged, and several states refused further Swedish military support, leaving the Swedish with few states North Germans only. After France intervened on the same side as Sweden, fortunes changed again. As the war continued, the death and military toll increased, and by the time it ended, it had led to a massive depopulation of the German states. Although exact population estimates do not exist, historians estimate that the population of the Holy Roman Empire decreased by a third as a result of the war.
Sweden established foreign colonies, especially in the New World. New Sweden was founded in the Delaware River valley in 1638, and the Swedish later laid claim to several Caribbean islands. A series of Swedish fortresses and trading posts were built along the West African coast as well, but these were not designed for Swedish settlers.
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At the end of the Thirty Years’ War, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted war reparations to the Swedish territories. Black demanded Silesia, Pomerania (which had existed since the Treaty of Stettin (1630), and a war indemnity of 20, 000, 000 Riksdaler.
These German items were to be treated as officials of the Holy Roman Empire. This allowed Sweden a vote in the Imperial Diet and could “rule” the Lower Saxon Ring in exchange for Brandburg. France and Sweden, moreover, became guarantors of the treaty with the Holy Roman Emperor and were entrusted to carry out their provisions, as was done by the great conference of Nuremberg in 1650.
After the peace of Brömsebro and Westphalia, Sweden became the third largest country in Europe by area, surpassed only by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its greatest extent during this period under the reign of Charles X Gustav (1622-1660) after the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658.
For a mother, Swed had a bad leadership position. Careful governance can mean permanent dominance on the Baltic coast, but leaves little room for error. The arrogance of the two immediate successors of Gustavus Adolphus, Kristina and Charles X Gustav, created great difficulties for the new kingdom. Christina’s financial excesses brought the kingdom to the brink of bankruptcy, and the financial difficulties caused public unrest before her abdication. The Swedes fear that the external and artificial greatness of their country can be bought at the expense of their civil and political liberties. The people of Sweden look to the new king to deal with the problem of too much power given to the nobility.
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Charles X Gustav was a powerful mediator between the people and the nobility. Primarily a soldier, he directed his desire towards military glory; but he was also a politician with unusual vision. Although he emphasized military power, he also understood that domestic unity was necessary for a strong foreign policy.
The most pressing domestic question was the reduction, or restoration of the separate crowns. In the Riksdag of the Estates of 1655, the king proposed that the noble owners should: 1) pay an annual sum of 200,000 Riksdaler to the lands they would receive, or 2) give up a quarter of the land itself. , worth about 800, 000 Riksdaler. The nobles wished to avoid taxation and stipulated that November 6, 1632, the date of Gustavus Adolphus’ death, should be the limit on which the previous taxes could be collected, and there should be no restitution of the crown property. Against this, the heavily taxed lower estates protested, and the Diet had to be suspended. The king intervened, not with the intention of stopping the conflict, as he had insisted, but to force the nobles to leave. He suggested that there should be a special committee to investigate the matter before the next Riksdag meeting and that there should be balanced input for all classes in the meantime. Both groups accepted this arrangement.
Charles X Gustav did everything to recover from Kristina’s fortune. However, his desire for military glory may have caused problems in his country. In three days, he convinced the Swedish territories to attack his invasion of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, when he left Stockholm for Warsaw on 10 July 1654, he won more fame than his country. The Polish-Swedish war escalated into a European war. He managed to pass the belts and was victorious, until he died of exhaustion. Shortly after his death, he was appointed Swedish regent during the infancy of his only son and successor, Charles XI of Sweden, who was four years old. The regency council moved quickly to fight against a number of Swedish emies, which now included the Tsardom of Russia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Electorate of Brandburg and Dmark-Norway.
The Peace of Oliva on 3 May 1660, ended the long conflict with Poland. The French mediation of this treaty also caused a conflict between Sweden, the Holy Roman emperor and the elector of Brandburg. This treaty ensured that Sweden had Livonia and the Electorate of Brandburg over Prussia; and the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth opposed every claim of the Swedish crown. The agreement forced Denmark-Norway to resume direct negotiations with Sweden. Finally, under the Treaty of Cophag on 27 May 1660, Sweden retained the three former Danish Scanian provinces and the former Norwegian province of Bohuslän, which Dmark-Norway had ceded in -Treaty of Roskilde two years before; but a Swede had to leave the Norwegian province of Trøndelag and the Danish island of Bornholm, which had been defeated at Roskilde. Dmark–Norway was also forced to see the liberation of the Holstein-Gottorp kings. The Russo-Swedish War (1656-1658) ended with the Treaty of Cardis on 2 July 1661, where the Tsar ceded the Baltic provinces to Sweden – Ingria, Estonia and Kexholm.
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Thus, Sweden emerged from the war not only as a military power, but also as one of the largest regions in Europe, with an area twice as large as present-day Sweden. The area of Sweden was 1,100,000 km
. While today’s Swedish is linked by the Baltic, during the 17th century the Baltic formed a link between.
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